This process gradually leads to a class of workers with some buying power who demand products, thus stimulating further production. Heather – Years ago when there were problems with cotton growth, what was said I think was that the reason there was such a massive problem with this is that cotton was a monocrop. George Washington Carver is my hero. In operation by 1865, it was among the earliest U.S. businesses to exemplify the industrial model, setting precedents other industries would follow. It’s insidious.Along with this use of the chemicals in the food, you had the US government subsidize breeding programs with grains. ERIK MEADOWS/CL FILE, “But the interesting parallel here is that the food is grown from the same source of war material – ammonium nitrate. It is not possible to replant these hybridized seeds. Whichever nutrient is available to the plants and then the minimum amount will determine that plant’s ability to grow. You have a biodiversity…and an echo-diversity. So he wanted to have this man come out and trap the boll weevil that we may have on our cotton downtown. Rashid – Yeah, that’s where it was used to defoliate the trees so they could see the Vietnamese as they were walking along the paths. You go out into the cotton fields and the soil is dead because its been mono-cropped. That’s the first thing you should do and then start growing vegetables. Dramatic changes in agriculture were already in progress when the eighteenth century began… Let me try to explain. And all of this requires fertilizer, tremendous amounts of irrigation, and pesticides. And what you said about Agent Orange and things like that. Everywhere you look. But they’ve taken these chemicals and…let me make it more simple… and use cotton as an example. Wheat harvest in Idaho. Meat, milk, and egg production became largely separated from crop production and involved facilities that housed a single breed of animal, during a particular period of its lifespan, for a single purpose (e.g., breeding, feeding, or slaughter). Heather – So this adds more chemicals to the soil, more chemicals to the food that we’re eating and so forth. The water’s not just to go down to the roots, the water’s got to get the stuff up into the plants so it takes more to suck it up. Hendrickson MK, James HS. It’s all a part of Mother Earth. This is what we’ve done with all the life around us. As the glaciers retreated and plant life patterns and growth areas changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential - though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisiti… What are some of those problems. It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate. 38 Schmookler suggests that âinventiveness,â measured by the number of patents issued, is related to changes in the demand for the output of the industry. I said “well my friend it didn’t grow so you don’t have to worry about that.” But they were so concerned because they have eliminated the boll weevil in Georgia. When the dust bowl in America happened before the Second World War, during the depression, there were a lot of factors that came together. They were not concerned about creating biological life in the soil. I had realized that if there was anyone in Atlanta, the United States or virtually anywhere in the world who understood the breadth of the history, the politics of food, and about organic production altogether, it was Rashid Nuri. The Industrialization of Agriculture (references: part 1-4) (A1) Allison, Robert J. You can buy round-up to spray the cracks in your sidewalk. So this same paradigm has been brought to agriculture. I don’t know if they come out of the air or not but they’ll appear. Wikipedia, The History Of Industrial Agriculture And Its Impact, https://popularresistance-uploads.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/2017/12/popres-shorter.png, https://popularresistance-uploads.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/2018/01/1rn-e1515954085518.jpg. Heather– And they are generally called commodities, right? Describe how and why agriculture was industrialized, and its impacts. Rashid – So back to the farmer that would use the waste from his farm. We are blessed he decided to create his organization here in Atlanta. Then, they use that surplus production to dominate the world politics by using food as a weapon around the world rather than guns. Those chemicals kill everything that’s in the soil. Washington D.C.; 2010. 1990. Around 75% of this income was from meat and feed for the animals that produce it. You have to have fertilizer; you have to have chemicals for the pests; and you have to have irrigation. Many other industries in the food system, including animal slaughtering and processing, also underwent major consolidation. Caller (2) – How are you doing brother Rashid? Both sides attributed this late industrialization to an over-reliance on the export of staples: cod, furs, timber, and wheat. Nadia – That makes sense. How does that work? Percentage of sales earned by the four largest companies in their respective industries.20,25 Earnings from food and agricultural industries have become increasingly concentrated among a small number of powerful companies. Creative Commons CC BY 2.0. Agron J. Workers in a cigar factory. The history of American agriculture (1776–1990) covers the period from the first English settlers to the modern day. The Great Courses. But the problem with that is this. Generally, people make money and countries do very well when they’re dominating and winning wars. Heather Gray – Tonight we’re going to be talking with Rashid Nuri about industrial agriculture and compare that to, of course, natural or organic production. Wikipedia, • Note #5: Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides. Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock. I know people who lived here as children and they told me there used to be a lot of fruit trees and a lot of trees that you could get food from that were growing wild in the metropolis and that this has disappeared. This means that people lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving with the seasons to follow the food supply. Networks, Power, and Dependency in the Agrifood Industry. Most of the work on the farm was done by human or animal labor. By 1900, 40 percent of Americans lived in cities. Most often before they even plant they’ll go into the fields and with chemicals kill all the weeds that are there. Public domain. The only folks that have become rich are the grain companies and the chemical companies that provided the inputs. Let’s sell it to the farmers.” So they give it to the farmers and the farmers grow more crops, but the chemicals also kill everything that’s in the soil. In the early 1900s, more than half of Americans were farmers or lived in rural communities. Like work on an assembly line, specialized labor often involves repetitive tasks that can be performed by machines. There’s an “assumption” that we can dominate nature and we’re finding out every day that you can’t. Caller (3) – Rashid, I am so glad you are on the show. Arabs are buying all this land so they can export commercial agriculture and continue to dominate the populations. USDA ERS. July 2011 Audio of Interview with Rashid Nuri, We think that we can try to dominate and control rather than be in harmony with the natural order of things…Those chemicals kill everything that’s in the soil. Dordrecht: Springer Science-Business Media Press; 2013:99-126. The boll weevil just sat here waiting every year. Everybody makes money accept the folk in countries who are receiving the food. In the U.S. beef slaughtering and processing industry, for example, the four largest companies earn 82 percent of the sales.20 In the supermarket industry, four companies earn at least 42 percent of the sales.21. It’s very important. 15. Specifically, this paper addresses: 1. When a small number of companies have a large market share of an industry, the market for that industry is said to be concentrated. Over the course of industrialization, specialization was applied to nearly all facets of food production. INDUSTRIALIZATION or Industrial development describes the process of transition from an agricultural society, devoid of mechanization, to a society that is based on industry. Rashid – Yeah, I’ve got to tell you a little joke. History of Industrialization. You have to rotate the crops and then the boll weevil would say, “Oh man, what is this soybean doing here?” This is one of the ways you can fool insects is by rotating of your crops. 1 By 5000 BCE, agriculture was practiced in every major continent except Australia. There’s no label on it that says this collard green is made up of all these different things that we put together. So, just because it’s labeled organic doesn’t mean that it’s healthful and safe for you. When and where did industrialized agriculture and ILOs come into being, and 2. The share of the agricultural sector in the GNP was almost 50% in 1950, then 25% in 1980, 15.3% in 1990, 11% in 2005, 8% in 2016. New York, New York: Plume; 1993. Henry Wallace sent Borlaug to Mexico where Borlaug began to conceive of the green revolution. As from the transcribed 2012 interview with Rashid entitled “Interview: Learning from Rashid Nuri: Rebellions & Revolutions: Usually It’s about Food“, below is information about his background. Rashid stresses that it is by being in harmony with the natural world that we can grow healthy food for us all rather than using the dangerous, poisonous and unhealthy chemicals as applied in industrial agriculture. But you need to talk about what Monsanto is. It creates a balance that stays in harmony. Before 1776: Life in the American Colonies [lectures]. of History, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Where do you want to start? You have to pay for the irrigation systems as you’ve got to make sure you have enough water because you can’t use these new technologies in agriculture without sufficient water. Early Industrialization and Agriculture 1791 – 1870. And then, in addition that food, there is an exchange for the raw materials in the countries receiving the food, and the raw materials are brought back to the United States to continue the industrialization process. So corn becomes the bullets.” – Rashid Nuri. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. The meatpacking plant of Chicago’s Union Stockyards was a sprawling facility that handled the slaughter, processing, packaging, and distribution of cattle and swine. Farmers were also motivated by economies of scale—the economic advantage of producing larger numbers of products. Earthworms are going to come into healthy soil. They left out all the micro-organisms and micro-nutrients in the soil that, in combination, there is a symbiosis between all of these elements that helps plants to grow. 8. Between 1950 and 1997, the average U.S. farm more than doubled in size, and less than half the farms remained.16 In meat, dairy, and egg production, the number of animals on each farm rose dramatically, while the number of small farms declined. Doing this by hand involves an enormous amount of time and effort. This is why you’ve got all the suicides today in India because of their relationship with Monsanto (and all the chemical laden seeds and fertilizers being sold to Indian farmers). I have friends who have lived in the city of Atlanta all their lives. They – the government – subsidize the production. For economic growth of a agriculture dominated nation, there is need for restructuring of the national economy, decreasing the share of the agricultural sector in the GDP (gross domestic product ) and in the work force , and boosting the industrial sectors. As a farmer you can’t allow for that. The farmers themselves are starving. So what you put back is going to be a throwback from the previous generations of seeds where the seeds have been crossed genetically and thus that keeps farmer in debt to and beholden to the seed companies that provide them with new seed that they have to pay for. The Teaching Company. The plant exploded and poisoned all the people in a wide radius around the plant and killed tens of thousands of people. Heather – Whereas, since time began farmers have always saved their seed for next year’s crop. People didn’t have irrigation. The industrialization of agriculture is said to have achieved two goals: to “free” Americans from farming so they could join the labor force in offices and factories, and to make food and farming cheaper so Americans could afford to buy the products offered by new industries.4 Photo public domain. That’s the principle ingredient we’re using. Lecture 8: New England Heretics—Religious and Economic. The edited transcription of the interview is below. But if you’re a small farmer and you’ve been convinced to use this new technology that is foreign to your farming history, you have to go borrow money to put in this crop. 20. 1998;56(1):15-33. Began in Great Britain in 1780s Improvements in agriculture raised food production lower food prices more disposable income and raised demand for manufactured goods Rapid population growth Failure of traditional cottage industries to keep up with the huge demand of cotton clothes throughout Britain The Early Phase of Revolution Harnatar, India; circa 1906. Rashid – If you get a disease a “dis-ease” or an insect that’s going to eat it up everything and your crop is gone – the insects are saying “here’s lunch, let’s eat” – and in these circumstances the whole field is the same thing, the same crop – there is no diversity. Atlanta’s OG of black farming, K. Rashid Nuri, at Truly Living Well’s Old Fourth Ward farm. We are in an age now of wave theory, quantum mechanics as a way of looking at the universe. Diversified farms gave way to genetically uniform monocultures—fields planted with just one crop species at a time, over a very large area. The Industrial Revolution marked a period of development in the latter half of the 18th century that transformed largely rural, agrarian societies â¦ However, the relative significance of farming has dropped steadily since the beginning of industrialization, and in 2003 - for the first time in history - the services sector overtook agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Here on the program on WRFG and the grace that you’ve given me with the opportunity to talk with folks on Just Peace, we can try to educate folks and help them to have a better understanding of these paradigms and how they effect us. It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. You can’t save a 10th and put it back the next year. Royal authority weakened, as local nobles became strongmen fighting their neighbors for control of the local region. She’s right. If you come to our site you’re able to get food, you can see it right there in the ground growing and you’re able to bring it home. Rashid – That’s very correct. Compared to chickens of the 1930s, today’s chickens bred for meat (“broilers”) grow to almost twice the weight, in less than half the time, using less than half as much feed.5 Genetic selection for these exaggerated traits has often come at the expense of the animals’ health, including increased risks for heart failure in broilers and udder infections in dairy cows bred for higher milk production.6. Over the same period, the average size of U.S. farms more than doubled (from 215 to 487 acres).17. We think that we can try to dominate and control rather than be in harmony with the natural order of things. However, the relative significance of farming has dropped steadily since the beginning of industrialization, and in 2003 - for the first time in history - the services sector overtook agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Image credit: Michael Milli and Brent Kim. For economic growth of a agriculture dominated nation, there is need for restructuring of the national economy, decreasing the share of the agricultural sector in the GDP (gross domestic product ) and in the work force , and boosting the industrial sectors. Still, by the end of the war, the typical American industry was small. As you can see from all this impressive background, Rashid’s breadth of both the knowledge and analysis of the politics and history of food is significant. You go to any of these countries that are practicing commercial agriculture and you see one thing in the field and that’s it. They started breeding programs to hybridize the food and then they standardized it so that all corn is the same size and harvested at the same time.Then we had a man named Norman Borlaug. How this has been interpreted is that scientists today feel as though they can take apart nature and put it back together better than nature can do itself. Canada was the first colony to industrialize, and it did so in the third quarter of the 19th century. Rashid – I’ll do the second one first. Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing. Specifically, this paper addresses: 1. Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock. Please post your comments in the Public comments section of "Google Classroom". 2012 U.S. Census of Agriculture. 12. By setting industrialization against the background of wider processes of economic growth, recent trends in economic history have once again placed agriculture at the center of debate on the formation of modern economies. Grain and bean crops, such as corn, wheat, rice, and soy, must be cut from the fields (reaped) and removed from the inedible parts of the plant (threshed). What they have done is say “we know better than nature does and we’re going to control or dominate what happens in the soil.” That has got us where we are today. Rashid – And the irony is that I’m using elephant dung now to grow food. You need more of it in order to get it done. It provides shipping transports to make money; the farmers make money because the prices get subsidized; the grain companies make money. When cows eat grass, that’s all they need. You come down to our site and we’ve got fruit trees at every site we have. Crop Farming. It is used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses that compete with crops….While glyphosate and formulations such as Roundup have been approved by regulatory bodies worldwide, concerns about their effects on humans and the environment persist. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program,Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. A very dear friend of mine gave me a book recently. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon. In the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. was a rural country – about 40 percent of Americans were farmers and more than half of those people lived in countryside. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. Public domain. Rashid – The PLU (Price Look-Up Code) is the standard number for any place you go in the country or perhaps in the world. It is important to note that this was a British development, as it is one of the indications of the increasing pressures of industrialization there even before the Industrial Revolution, while other European countries, with the exception of the Netherlands, from which several of the agricultural innovations in Britain were acquired, did little to encourage agricultural productivity. It was a chemical that killed all the crops and harmed the people. Rifkin J. Potential for a new generation of biodiversity in agroecosystems of the future. Heather – So as always, thank you yet again, Rashid! But I guess we should start at the beginning, right? Other states, notably Denmark and New Zealand, industrialized primarily by commercializing and mechanizing agriculture. 1600-1760: Proto-industrialization in rural areas, organized and financed by rich merchants (e.g., via the putting-out system7); Almost all successfully industrialized economies have gone through these key stages in history, as the following examples show: U.K. path to industrialization:6. And this is what we’ve done with agriculture. 24. Get your long-term food in. You can’t save your seeds and put them back the next year as farmers has always done. You can’t dominate nature. It was the start of everything. So with that knowledge you go out and put fertilizer on the plants – not thinking about the soil – not thinking about the life in the soil – and isolating the plants from the soil and saying “We know more than God does.” So again, the thinking was that if we add nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to these plants, then we will be able to grow things. Lin B-H, Padgitt M, Bull L, Delvo H, Shank D, Taylor H. Pesticide and Fertilizer Use and Trends in U.S. Agriculture. Rashid – No, golf courses and grass in front of your house is a waste. Africa has all the resources for everybody and the Chinese are coming in and trying to get it. Rashid – It’s supporting a system of agriculture production that is killing the earth. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. That’s where the concept came from. That’s where the concept of tithing comes from. In more recent years, North Carolina farmers have also developed profitable aquaculture, berry, and Christmas tree markets. They invented round-up some years ago that is very efficient in keeping the broadleaf weeds out of the farmland. 1999. Rashid – To lead into where these suicides are coming from, you’ve got these farmers – as in India – who are convinced to use this new technology, which is making money for folks back here in the west. Vertical integration is a type of market concentration that occurs when companies gain control of multiple industries involved in the same products. The history of industrialization of Nnewi by Chukwuemeka Nzewi, president Nnewi chamber of commerce, industry, mines and agriculture 1. Industrialization of Agriculture [Lesson Duration: 50 minutes] Lesson Overview Examine what percentage of human history has included agriculture. Over the brief span of the 20 th century, agriculture underwent greater change than … Agriculture and industrialization: from the eighteenth century to the present day Davis, John A. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, introduced in the early 1900s, have been credited with feeding the lion’s share of a global population that grew from 1.6 to 6 billion over the 20th century. USDA. Modern U.S. agriculture has been described as “the most efficient in the world, at least in terms of the dollar and cent costs of production.”1 The public health and ecological costs of industrialization, however, are not reflected in the prices of food. Industrialization of American agriculture destroyed Thomas Jefferson's dream of The American Agrarian Virtue as he did not encourage manufacturing in the United States because he claimed it was subject to the person's whims and also dependent. The seed companies are also still trying to breed seed for drought areas – drought resistant seed and their having trouble with this. Then they start subsidizing crops. Liebman M, Davis AS. He would also use the hay in his farm to make compost that he would put that back in the ground and grow his food. So, since 2011, I have been interviewing Rashid once a month about agriculture and also opening the phone lines for listeners to ask questions about the topic at hand or organic production techniques, etc. The best that you can do is be in harmony with and in tune with nature which is the essence of natural urban agriculture. Consolidation in U.S. hog farms, 1955–2015. Somebody in a laboratory has created it. If you’re raising chickens or if you’re raising cows I approve of that grassland. It was the start of everything. All through the Bible…this is what happened in Egypt with David and Joseph and those folks. Over the same period, the average number of hogs per farm increased from 37 to 1,044. 1600-1760: Proto-industrialization in rural areas, organized and financed by rich merchants (e.g., via the putting-out system7); 1997;83(5):531-41. In the U.S. market for salty snacks, for example, 64 percent of sales are earned by PepsiCo.19. Rashid – Not only the land, but the people got cancers and all kinds of bodily disease because of their exposure to Agent Orange. Before industrialization, goods were hand-made by craftsmen. This paper provides historical background on the industrialization of animal agriculture that has led to current public concern and conflict over ILOs. Mutual relationship between industrialization and agriculture. Using a timeline and short readings, students will explore key milestones in the history of agriculture, with a focus on industrialization and the reasons behind it. • Note #1: The Green Revolution: The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug, the “Father of the Green Revolution”, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers…, Health effects of the Green Revolution: The consumption of the pesticides used to kill pests by humans in some cases may be increasing the likelihood of cancer in some of the rural villages using them. When and where did industrialized agriculture and ILOs come into being, and 2. 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